A framework of political system in Indonesia built upon
a foundation of democratic republic, which is basically centered on such
a system as presidential representative. Therefore, the President of
Indonesia is both head of government and head of state that’s a
part of executive power. The latter is typically owned by the government,
while at the same time politics of Indonesia also know another power
dubbed as legislative power (owned by parliament, or People’s
Representative Councils. Outside the both, there is judiciary which
relatively independent from the legislature and the executive. Since new
order, started from 1966 to 1998, presidential system in [link:63]
Indonesia [/link]also holds parliamentary characteristic within it.
Amendments that have been set up after the New Order era rose up several
changes in term of political system in
This article would like to give you a brief introduction to political system in
Indonesia, especially one that related to changes of the
system after a constitutional reform.
Changes in Political System in Indonesia
A political reform lasted from 1999 to 2002, after the President
Soeharto decided to leave the throne of New Order. After that, there are
few important changes made for political system in
1) 2 five years terms had been applied for the Vice
President and President. This was applied in order to ensure checks and
balances in political system in Indonesia.
2) The election system has changed. The President
and Vice President are now elected by the people. Consequently, the
People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR) holds no right to choose
president as previously defined by old system (The New Order).
3) The member of MPR and People’s
Representative Council (DPR) are elected based on theresults ofthe
4) Elimination ofmilitary and
policerepresentativesinparliament, whichlastedsince 2004.
5) A more democratic elections system took its way
in 2004 and 2009.
6) Freedom of the press, which was rarely given
prior to 1998.
7) Decentralization of power and the release of
Above all, the most important changes in terms of political
system in Indonesia were democratic elections. Once every 5
years, selected citizens hold the right to select parliamentarian, and
The President as well as The Vice President for five-year terms. A new
political system in Indonesia, thereby, was started on
2004. The one, a president, who is selected directly by the people in
general election, will be a head of state for five years; if may, s/he
can compete once again in the next election, in order to fulfill two
five-year terms in maximum.
As you can see, that kind of political system ensures checks and
balances, which in essence created to avoid abuse of power. Therefore,
the current political system in Indonesia has become
healthier, and most importantly, was outof the path ofdictatorship. 32
years of the New Order refers to an era in which Soehartomanage
thecountryby spreading fear among citizens. Shortly speaking, a
totalitarian regime was out of question, as the political system
in Indonesia has become “fairer” and balanced.
Within such changes, the General Election Commission has been
established. The body is responsible for running both presidential and
parliamentary elections. In that way, the commission is independent,
permanent, and national. Therefore, in new political system in
Indonesia, a partisan member would not be accepted to General
While there are plenty changes in terms of political system in
Indonesia, one thing for sure: the country has built strong
brotherhood with the United States and few other countries like Japan.
Those countries, hasbeen working with the government of
Indonesiainvarious fields, including energy exploration, investment,
tourism, andso forth. Although there were long periods in which Indonesia
received harsh criticism from other countries (regarding some cases
related to human right abuses in East Timor in 1975 and 1999), since 2001
the government of United States of America and Indonesia has been
establishing co-operation in eradicating theIslamicfundamentalistgroup.
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Political System in Indonesia: Conclusion
Basically, Indonesia has been running through post-new order era,
which means that there are more things to be enhanced, in terms of
political system in Indonesia, in the future (one of
which is economic aspects which regulates political system). the